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Marxist Literary Criticism and The Class Roles Of The Characters In The Cherry Orchard The play The Cherry Orchard was intended to be a comedy by Chekhov, but the director of the play staged it as a tragedy play. Apparently, the subject matter employed in the play is extensive as much as there are comical elements, especially regarding the addiction of Ranevskaya’s brother to billiards. The characters portrayed in the movie depicted different kinds of social realism that were postulated during the Marxism’s reign. In essence, as the time goes by, the passage of the old social class has to welcome and usher in a new social class because of social change and transformation. According to the Marxism theory, people apply this social change law universally around the globe. Moreover, according to the manner in which the characters such as Gayev, Ranevskaya, and Lopakhin were depicted in the play, there is no way a single class in any social history can maintain and keep hold of their supremacy levels as well as their privileged status without incurring a challenge. In the thrilling play The Cherry Orchard, it is clear that Ranevskaya and Gayev represent the dying democracy. In particular, their growing number of debts made them to auction their orchard. Otherwise, they could lose their orchard because they had no more options. However, there was a slight opportunity for the orchard to be saved by putting it on lease for the creation of summer cottages if the virtually dying class could have accepted to live a life full of compromise and adaptation. In spite of this chance, because of their pride, they never allowed their orchard to be leased. Gayev and Lyubov were more than willing to depart that place rather than to witness other individuals possessing it. Moreover, they attempted their last battle in their unsuccessful and hopeless attempt to retrieve and save their orchard. However, they did not succeed and ended up failing in the process. Consequently, the orchard fell into hands of the much more sensible and practical man named Lopakhin. Apparently, Lopakhin is a true symbol of the emerging middle class based on the Marxism theoretical principles. He is a man who believed in practical activities, hence making him to be acknowledged as a man of action. In other words, this main attribute of Lopakhin, which was modeled around the tendency to take quick action, meant to propel him above the underprivileged class through success emanating from financial and practical resources. Initially, Lophakhin belonged to what was then known as the working class since he was once a servant in Lyubov’s house. However, through his diligent and hard work and practical way of thinking, he became successful. Moreover, with the financial stability that he had earned, he ended up moving to the middle class from the working one. In terms of economic stability, he managed to buy the cherry orchard when it was being auctioned for the highest bidder. Having done that, he attracted the attention of the aristocracy, which is clearly shown in the play when Ranevskaya offers his daughter to him. However, Lopakhin did not accept the offer at once. In addition, according to Marxism perspective, if Lopakhin in the play represents the middle class, then it is obvious that another character – Trofimov – represents the visionary and theoretical ideas of the class that was known for its commitment to embrace challenges. Altogether, the characters in The Cherry Orchard represent the real life social phenomenon that exemplified the traditional feudal way of living, which welcomed the rapidly expanding mercantile and capitalist middle class. Additionally, as a model of social realism, the characters in the play represent the setting of the Russian society that occurred during the ninetieth century when the Russians were experiencing the threshold of change. In particular, in the play, Chekhov captured the undying reality of transition and changes since it is through the displacement of Gayev and Ranevskaya that the reader is able to see the failures of adaptation and compromise in the society. Apparently, this situation symbolizes the fact that the early 20th century was the last period that witnessed the collapse of the feudal societal structure. Furthermore, in this play, the feudal society is symbolized as boring, ridiculously ideal, dreamy, and passive. In simple terms, these characteristics clearly show that the feudal class had no right to be on the topmost place at the social hierarchy. In the book, there is also the depiction of the middle class as individuals who are hardworking, sensible, practical, painstaking, radical, and ambitious. Therefore, it can be argued that the writer of the play is in support of the emergence of the middle class during this period. Furthermore, Madame Ranevskaya is also among the few characters in the play that are not able to adapt to the needs and the demands of the society. In other words, her behavior when she is unable to pay her own debts but helps a friend by giving money for her loan can be described as irrational. Essentially, she continues to be more generous with strangers and her friends as well as to live an aristocratic life even though the aristocratic power does not offer her any advantage in her predicaments at any point. She finds it difficult to change; hence, surrounding herself with Yasha is a clear symbolism of failing to adapt. On the contrary, Simeonof-Pishtchik represents a true picture of adaptability. In the play, he is a neighbor who owns land next to the cherry orchard and is always social in nature. Moreover, he is able to adapt and make jokes where others have failed. Even though during most of his appearances in the play he is characterized by debts, he always finds a way to pay them off by the end of the acts. Given the fact that he requests some loan from Madame Ranevskaya when she herself is not able to pay off her debts, Simeonof-Pishtchick turns out to be the only character that is dynamic and can do anything to become successful. In summary, according to the manner in which the characters such as Gayev, Ranevskaya, and Lopakhin were depicted in the play, there is no way a single class in any social history can maintain and keep hold of their supremacy levels as well as their privileged status without incurring a challenge. In simple terms, the history of the Russian century during the early twentieth century can be said to be a history of social transformation and transition. Additionally, the Russian society, which was trying so hard to break free from the shibboleth of what was then acknowledged as the dying feudal aristocracy, characterized the late stages of the ninetieth century. Parallel to this struggle and due to the final change it brought, the Russian society also managed to hasten the birth of a mercantile middle class. Ultimately, the play The Cherry Orchard is well written and enriched with a number of themes that characterize the manner in which things had been happening during the 19th and 20th century in the Russian society. More articles of this writer you can read following the attached link upper.
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The Rise and Fall of Egypt Ancient Egypt is regarded as one of the most outstanding and developed civilizations of the ancient times with the remarkable history, culture and religion. The history of ancient Egypt includes different periods and was marked by the rule of 31 dynasties during more than 3000 years. The changes that the civilization faced during its existence were drastic, therefore the history of the ancient Egypt is remarkably interesting and manifold. The history of the Great Egyptian civilization began in approximately 3100 BC, when Lower and Upper Egypt were united by king Menes, who is also known as Narmer. He founded the rule of pharaohs. Menes was the ruler of the two regions. The unification of Lower and Upper Egypt influenced art and culture of the Egyptian civilization significantly. The separated villages were under control of one king. This fact was important for the development of regional cultural and economic relations. In addition, culture and social life of Egyptian people was highly influenced by religious beliefs during all the period of existence of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. The unification in social and cultural spheres did not immediately follow the political unification of the territories as the process began long before the actual unification. During the period, establishing a stable connection between the two separate territories in different spheres, such as trade, agriculture and politics, was of primary importance. The religious beliefs developed, especially those concerning traditional funeral rituals as the rich people needed something more than the old traditional burial. The series of funeral practices initiated at that time served as a basis for future creation of the pyramids. The following period was famous because of the pyramids that were built in these years; it is known as the Age of Pyramids. This is the period that lasted throughout the third millennium BC when important scientific inventions and discoveries were made. Moreover, it was marked by the highest level of development of architecture, technology, art and culture. This time spanned the rule of four dynasties (from the third to the sixth one). The work of the governors of different territories within the Egyptian empire was appropriately coordinated, which resulted in high productivity and stable growth of agriculture. This cooperation and coordinated work provided resources for the development of all other industries. A remarkable representative of the third dynasty was Djoser, who initiated the construction of the first pyramid. Another important historical figure was Imhotep, a polymath and vizier of the king. He was also the architect of the first pyramid. Imhotep is now considered to be the first mathematician, architect and engineer in the history, and his impact on the development of the Great Egypt cannot be overestimated. Imhotep was one of very few common people who were given the divine status after their death. His contribution to the architecture was highly significant. He was the first to use the columns to support a construction. In addition, Imhotep largely contributed to the development of the Egyptian medicine. He was the author of a remarkable medical treatise that appeared to be a kind of innovation. Here, Imhotep went away from religious and magical thinking when considering the issues of the proper medical treatment of ill and injured people. The paper featured observations of the diseases and parts of the human body as well as medical considerations. Even after his death, Imhotep was highly respected as an important figure of the Egyptian science, culture, medicine, and architecture. He was sometimes confused with great Egyptian gods. This also shows the high level of respect towards this prominent scientist. The third dynasty was followed by the fourth one that was also famous for its outstanding representatives. The kingdom reached the peak of its development and power during the rule of the fourth dynasty. Special attention should be paid to the second pharaoh in the dynasty, Khufu, who is also famous under his Hellenized name Cheops. Khufu is known for building of the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. There are different characteristics of the personality of the king in different periods of the Egyptian empire. There was a series of positive observations of the image of the king and it was important to preserve his positive image. However, older documents, dated at about the third century BC, reveal the negative side of his character, which gives complete information on the personality of the emperor. Nonetheless, despite the fact that he had both positive and negative traits, building of the most well-known ancient pyramid during his rule testifies to the valuable contribution of Khufu as a leader to the development of the Egyptian culture and architecture. Khufu was followed by his sons, Djedefra and Khafre. The latter is known for building the second big pyramid in Giza. He is also sometimes regarded as the ruler who built the famous statue of Sphinx; but this fact is highly questionable and usually criticized by many egyptologists. Khafre was one of the first famous pharaohs in the history of Ancient Egypt. He is famous for his outstanding deeds, but there are few documents that contain some information about this figure. The main sources of information about this header are the observation of Herodotus, who described Khafre as a despotic and oppressive governor. He was also known for his statue that is still exists and is known for its richness and size. At the end of the period the highly developed centralized government brought up a new social class of educated people who owned great amounts of land and had stable grants from the pharaoh for their services. The uprising of nobles was followed by a series of civil wars. The continuous granting of land and riches to aristocracy together with the inner instability and series of conflicts weakened the authority of pharaoh and decreased the economic stability of Egypt. But the key factor of the empire's decline at that period was the drought that resulted in various diseases and continuing hunger. In these hard times the governing system appeared to be ineffective and helpless in coping with these complex problems. At the end of the sixth dynasty’s rule the centralized government system was ruined. It was impossible to reach the initial level of economic development and stability. The governors of the districts could not rely on the pharaoh; therefore, they began to develop separately from each other, forming more distinguished culture and economy. Feeling absolute freedom from the centralized government and being no more controlled by the king, the governors participated in numerous territorial conflicts. During the second millennium, pharaohs made attempts to restore the central power and return to the prior level of political and economic development. The stability and prosperity were finally achieved, although they did not reach the scale of the previous times. Another important figure to be mentioned is the last pharaoh of ancient Egypt, Cleopatra VII Philopator, a representative of the Ptolemaic dynasty and a descendant of Alexander the Great. At first, she ruled the country together with her father, and later with her two brothers, whom she married according to the existing tradition. Eventually, she remained to be the only pharaoh. Cleopatra was the descendant of the Hellenic emperor, Alexander the Great, but is considered as one of the most outstanding rulers of Egypt because of her beliefs, political views, and remarkable patriotism. She was the only representative of her dynasty who recognized the value of the Egyptian language and learned it. Cleopatra did not refuse to speak the language, unlike other pharaohs who preferred to speak Greek. She possessed outstanding intelligence. Her political talent brought rapid growth and stability of the country’s economy. She somehow reunited the territories that participated in civil wars and conflicts and her policy brought peace to Egypt. When the state became involved in the conflict between Pompey and Julius Caesar, Caesar came to the capital of Egypt and got involved in a relationship with Cleopatra. She regained the throne with the help of Caesar, and her brother was killed. She then married her second brother, but her son, Caesarion, is known to be the son of Caesar, although he had never officially recognized him. After assassination of Caesar, she got into relationship with Mark Antony. They opposed Julius Caesar Octavian, uniting their armies to increase their chance of victory. Unluckily, they failed and after Mark Antony’s suicide Cleopatra also decided to take her own life. After her death Egypt became the territory of the Roman Empire. It was the end of the great ancient Egypt. The article was pre written by professional writer Lola Nickson, more her papers you can find at paper-land academic essay writing service
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